Research on Specific Avocado Components & Eating Patterns That Include Avocados


Boehm JK, Williams DR, Rimm EB, Ryff C, Kubzansky LD. Association between optimism and serum antioxidants in the midlife in the United States study. Psychosom Med. 2013; 75: 2-10.


Rink SM, Mendola P, Mumford SL, et al. Self-report of fruit and vegetable intake that meets the 5 a day recommendation is associated with reduced levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and increased levels of antioxidant defense in premenopausal women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013; 113: 776-85.

Nagata C, Nakamura K, Wada K, et al. Association of dietary fat, vegetables and antioxidant micronutrients with skin ageing in Japanese women. Brit J Nutr. 2010; 103(10): 1493-8.

Victor VM, Milagros R, Eva S, et al. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Current Pharm Design. 2009; 15: 2988-3002.

Wray DW, Nishiyama SK, Monnet A, et al. Antioxidants and aging: NMR-based evidence of improved skeletal muscle perfusion and energetics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009; 297(5): H1870-5.

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Morganti P, Fabrizi G, and Bruno C. Protective effects of oral antioxidants on skin and eye function. Skinmed. 2004; 3(6): 310-316.

Morganti P, Bruno C, Guarneri F, et al. Role of topical and nutritional supplement to modify the oxidative stress. Inter J Cosmetics Sci. 2002; 24: 331-39.

De Waart FG, Schouten EG, Stalenhoef AF, Kok FJ. Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol and mortality risk in a prospective study among Dutch elderly. Int J Epidemiol. 2001; 30: 136-43.

Ames B. Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Oxygen radicals and degenerative diseases. Science 1983; 221: 1256-1263.




Henrotin Y, Lambert C, Couchourel D, Ripoll C, Chiotelli E. Nutraceuticals: do they represent a new era in the management of osteoarthritis? - a narrative review from the lessons taken with five products. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011; 19(1): 1-21.

Dinubile NA. A potential role for avocado-and soybean-based nutritional supplementation in the management of osteoarthritis: a review. Phys Sportsmen. 2010; 38(2): 71-81.

Cameron M, Gagnier JJ, Little CV, et al. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part I: Osteoarthritis. Phytother Res. 2009; 23: 1497-1515.

Little CV, Parsons T, Logan S. Herbal therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009; 4. Art. No.: CD002947. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002947

Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoarth Cart. 2008; 16: 399-408.

Gabay O, Gosset M, Levy A. Stress-induced signaling pathways in hyalin chondrocytes: inhibition by avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) . Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008; 16(3): 373-384.

Lipiello L, Nardo JV, Harlan R, Chiou T. Metabolic effects of avocado/soy unsaponifiables on articular chondrocytes. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008; 5(2): 191-197.

Altinel L, Saritas ZK, Kose KC, et al. Treatment with unsaponifiable extracts of avocado and soybean increases TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 levels in canine joint fluid. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007; 211: 181-186.

Au RY, Al-Talib TK, Au AY, Phan PV, Frondoza CG. Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) suppress TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, iNOS gene expression, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages. Osteoarth Cart. 2007; 15: 1249-1255.

Henroitin YE, Deberg MA, Crielaard JM, et al. Avocado/ soybean unsaponifiables prevent the inhibitory effect of osteoarthritis subchondral osteoblasts on aggrecan and type II collagen synthesis by chondrocytes. J Rheumatol. 2006; 33(8): 1666-1678.

Angermann P. [Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis] . [German] Ugeskr Laeger 2005; 167: 3023-3025.

Ernst E. Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) for osteoarthritis - a systematic review. Clin Rheumatol. 2003; 22: 285-288.

Lequesne M, Maheu E, Cadet C, Dreiser RL. Structural effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables on joint space loss in osteoarthritis of the hip. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 47(1): 50-58.

Appelboom T, Schuermans J, Verbruggen G, Henrotin Y, Reginster JY. Symptoms modifying effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in knee osteoarthritis. A double blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Rheumatol. 2001; 30: 242-247.

Maheu E, Mazières B, Valat JP, et al. Symptomatic efficacy of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial with a six-month treatment period and a two-month follow-up demonstrating a persistent effect. Arthritis Rheum. 1998; 41: 81-91.

Blotman F, Maheu E, Waldwick A, Caspar H, Lopez A. Efficacy and safety of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables in the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. A prospective, multicenter, three-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1997; 64: 825-834.






Arnold C, Winter L, Fröhlich K, et al. Macular xanthophylls and w-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized trial. JAMA Ophthalmol.  2013; 131: 564-72.  


Bernstein PS, Sharifzadeh M, Liu A, et al. Blue-light reflectance imaging of macular pigment in infants and children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013; 54: 4034-40.


Goltz SR, Sapper TN, Failla ML, Campbell WW, Feruzzi MG. Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal. Nutr Res. 2013; 33: 358-66.


Jung S, Wu K, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, Willet WC, Smith-Warner SA. Carotenoid intake and risk of colorectal adenomas in cohort of male health professionals. Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24: 705-17.  


Kimble LL, Mathison BD, Chew BP. b-cryptoxanthin and lutein mediate inflammation in human chondrosarcoma cells through nuclear factor-kB and activator protein-1. American Journal of Advanced Food Science and Technology. 2013; 1: 52-69.


Roberts R. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and skin health. Am J Lifestyle Med.  2013; 7: 182-185.


Goltz SR, Campbell WW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Ferruzzi MG. Meal triacylglycerol profile modulates postprandial absorption of carotenoids in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012; 56: 866-77.

Johnson EJ. A possible role for lutein and zeaxanthin in cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96(suppl): 1161S--5S.

Kiko T, Nakagawa K, Tsuduki T, Arai H, Miyazawa T. Significance of Lutein in Red Blood Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2012; 28(3): 593-600.

Ozawa Y, Sasaki M, Takahashi N, et al. Neuroprotective effects of lutein in the retina. Curr Pharm Des. 2012; 18: 51-6.

Sommer A, Vyas KS. A global clinical view on vitamin A and carotenoids. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 96(suppl): 1204S-6S.

Xu X-R, Zou Z-Y, Huang Y-M, et al. Serum carotenoids in relation to risk factors for development of atherosclerosis. Clin Biochem. 2012; 45: 1357-61.

Zou Z, Xu X, Huang Y, et al. High serum level of lutein may be protective against early atherosclerosis: The Beijing atherosclerosis study. Atherosclerosis. 2011; 219(2): 789-93.

Koh WP et al. Plasma Carotenoids and risk of acute myocardial infarction in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Nutr Metabl Cardio Dis. 2010. March 12, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.12.2005 [Epub ahead of print]

Carpentier S, Knausi M, Suhi M. Associations between Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Overview. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009; 49: 313-326.

Hozawa A, Jacobs DR, Steffes MW, Gross MD, Steffen LM, Lee L-H. Circulating carotenoid concentrations and incident hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. J Hypertens. 2009; 27(2): 237-242.

Karppi J et al. Lycopene, lutein, and beta carotene as determinants of LDL conjugated dienes in serum. Atherosclerosis. 2009; Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Johnson JJ, McDonald K, Caldarella SM, et al. Cognitive findings of an exploratory trial of the docosahexaenoic acid and lutein supplementation in older women . Nutr Neurosci. 2008; 11(2): 75-83.

McNulty H, Jacob RF, and Mason RP. Biologic activity of carotenoids related to distinct membrane physiochemical interactions. Am J Cardio. 2008; 101: 20D-29D.

Hozawa A, Jacobs DR, Steffes MW, Gross MD, Steffen LM, and Lee L-H. Relationships of Circulating Carotenoid Concentrations with Several Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) Study. Clin Chem. 2007; 53(3): 447-455.

Voutilainen S et al. Carotenoids and cardiovascular health. Am J Clinical Nutr. 2006; 83: 1265-71.

Dwyer JH, Paul-Labrador MJ, Fan J, Shircore AM, Bairey-Merz CN, Dwyer KM. Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Plasma Antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24: 313-319.

Dwyer JH, Navab M, Dwyer KM, et al. Oxygenated Carotenoid Lutein and Progression of Early Atherosclerosis: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Circulation. 2001; 103: 2922-2927.

Hough G, Wang X, Bairey-Merz CN, Fogelman AM. Oxygenated carotenoid lutein and progression of early atherosclerosis: the Los Angeles atherosclerosis study. Circulation. 2001; 103: 2922-2927.

Haegele AD, Gillette C, O'Neill C, Wolfe P, Heimendinger J, Sedlacek S, and Thompson HJ. Plasma Xanthophyll Carotenoids Correlate Inversely with Indices of Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2000; 9: 421-425.

Roberts RL, Green J, Lewis B. Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health. Clin Dermatol. 2009; 27: 195-201.

Moeller SM, Voland R, Tinker L, et al. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the carotenoids in age-related eye disease study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the women's health initiative. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008; 126: 354-364.

Wang W, Connor SL, Johnson EJ, et al. Effect of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin on plasma carotenoids and their transport in lipoproteins in age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 762-769.

Goni I, Serrano J, Saura-Calixto F. Bioaccessibility of B-carotene, lutein and lycopene from fruits and vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54: 5382-5387.

Trumbo PR, Ellwood KC. Lutein and zeaxanthin intakes and risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts: an evaluation using the FDA evidence-based review system for health claims. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 971-974.

Wu X, Gu L, Holden J, et al. Development of a database for total antioxidant capacity in foods: a preliminary study. J Food Comp Analysis. 2004; 17: 407-422.

Vinson J, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2001; 49: 5315-5321.

Jones DP, Coates RF, Flagg EW, et al. Glutathione in foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's health habits and history food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer. 1992; 17: 57-75.

Heinonen M, Ollilainen V, Linkola EK, Varo PT, Koivistoinen PE. Carotenoids in Finnish foods: vegetables, fruits, and berries. J Agric Food Chem. 1989; 37: 655-659.




Chen GC, LV DB, Pang Z, Dong JY, Liu QF. Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 96-100.




Bellavia A, Larsson SC, Bottai M, Wolk A, Orsini N. Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: a dose-response analysis. Am J Clin Nutr.  2013; 98: 454-9.


Christensen AS, Viggers L, Hasselström K, Gregersen S. Effect of fruit restriction on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes-a randomized trial. Nutr J.  2013; 12: 29.


Guenther PM, Casavale KO, Reedy J, et al. Update of the Health Eating Index: HEI-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet.  2013; 113: 569-80.




Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Long-term effects of low glycemic index/load vs. high glycemic index/load diets on parameters of obesity and obesity-associated risks: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.  2013; 23: 699-706.



Esser D, van Dijk SL, Oosterink E, Müller M, Afman LA. A high-fat SFA, MUFA, or n3 PUFA challenge affects the vascular response and initiates an activated state of cellular adherence in lean and obese middle-aged men. J Nutr. 2013; 143: 843-51.

Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean dietN Engl J Med.  2013; 368: 1279-90.

Gonzalez-Covarrubias V, Beekman M, Uh HW, et al. Lipidomics of familial longevity. Aging Cell. 2013; 12: 426-34.

Kesse-Guyot E, Andreeva VA, Lassale C, et al. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: a French study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 369-76.

Kien CL, Bunn JY, Tompkins CL, et al. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 97: 689-97.

Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E, et al. Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013; May 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Peña-Orihuela P, Camargo A, Rangel-Zuñiga OA, et al. Antioxidant system response is modified by dietary fat in adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients. J Nutr Biochem.  2013 May 3. pii: S0955-2863(13)00057-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.02.012. [Epub ahead of print]

Raz O, Steinvil A, Berliner S, Rosenzweig T, Justo D, Shapira I. The effect of two iso-caloric meals containing equal amounts of fats with a different fat composition on the inflammatory and metabolic markers in apparently healthy volunteers. J Inflamm (Lond).  2013; 10: 3.


Samieri C, Grodstein F, Rosner BA, et al. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age. Epidemiology. 2013; 24: 490-9.

Samieri C, Okereke OI, E Devore E, Grodstein F. Long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with overall cognitive status, but not cognitive decline, in women. J Nutr.  2013; 143: 493-9.


Ye X, Scott T, Gao X, Maras JE, Bakun PJ, Tucker KL. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013; 113: 276-81. e1-3.

Ortega A, Varela LM, Bermudez B, et al. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases. Food Funct. 2012; 3: 22-27.

Sartorius T, Ketterer C, Kullmann S, et al. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the aversive effects of obesity on locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior. Diabetes. 2012; 61: 1669-79.

van Dijk SJ, Feskens EJ, Bos MB, et al. Consumption of a high monounsaturated fat diet reduces oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of abdominally overweight men and women. J Nutr. 2012; 142: 1219-25.

Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones PJ. Dietary Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Are Protective Against Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Lipids. 2011; 46(3): 209-28.

Naqvi AZ, Harty B, Mukamal KJ, et al. Monounsaturated, trans and saturated fatty acids and cognitive decline in women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59(5): 837-843.

Schwingshackl L, Strasser B, Hoffmann G. Effects of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids on Glycaemic Control in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis . Ann Nutr Metab. 2011; 58(4): 290-6.

Schwingshackl L, Strasser B, Hoffmann G. Effects of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011; 59(2-4): 176-86.

Brehm BJ, Lattin BL, Summer SS, et al. One-year comparison of a high mono-unsaturated fat diet with a high-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 215-220.

Chong EW, Robman LD, Simpson JA, et al. Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127: 674-680.

Parekh N, Voland RP, Moeller SM, et al. Association between dietary fat intake and age-related macular degeneration in the carotenoids in age-related disease study (CAREDS): an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127: 1483-1493.

Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. Comparison of weight loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 859-872.

Sloth B, Due A, Larsen TM, et al. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycemic index diet and low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6 month weight maintenance period. Brit J Nutr. 2009; 101: 1846-58.

Due A, Larsen TM, Mu H, et al. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6 mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 1232-1234.

Halton TL, Liu S, Manson JE, Hu FB. Low-carbohydrate diet score and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 339-346.

Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 229-241.

Tentolouris N, Arapostathi C, Perrea D, et al. Differential effects of two isoenergetic meals rich in saturated or monounsaturated fat on endothelial function in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diab Care. 2008; 31: 2276-2278.

Berglund L, Lefevre M, Ginsberg HN, et al. Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with high metabolic risk profile: studies in the fasting and postprandial states. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 1611-1620.

Field AE, Willett WC, Lissner L, Colditz GA. Dietary fat and weight gain among women in the Nurses' Health Study. Obesity. 2007; 15(4): 967-976.

Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Romero I, et al. Monounsaturated fat-rich diet prevents central body fat distribution and decreases postprandial adiponectin expression induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet in insulin-resistant subjects. Diab Care. 2007; 30: 1717-1723.

Paniagua JA, Gallego de la Sacristana A, Sánchez E, et al. A MUFA-rich diet improves postprandial glucose, lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007; 26: 434-444.

Shah M, Adams-Huet B, and Garg A. Effect of a high-carbohydrate versus a high cis-monounsaturated fat diet on blood pressure: meta analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 1251-1256.

Willett WC. The Mediterranean diet: science and practice. Pub Hlth Nutr. 2006; 9(1A): 105-110.

Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M, et al. Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83: 221-226.

Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. Effect of protein, monounsaturated fat and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids. (Omni Heart study). JAMA. 2005; 294: 2455-2464.

Shah M, Adams-Huet B, Bantle JP, et al. Effect of a high-carbohydrate versus a high cis-monounsaturated fat diet on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab Care. 2005; 28: 2607-2612.

Gerhard GT, Ahmann A, Meeuws K, et al. Effects of a low-fat diet compared with those of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 668-673.

Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Maddox DH, et al. Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low fat weight loss diets on the serum lipid profiles in overweight and obese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 204-12.

Piers LS, Walker KZ, Stoney RM, Soares MJ, O'Dea K. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men. Br J Nutr. 2003; 90(3): 717-27.

Kris-Etherton P, Zhao G, Pelkman CL, Fishell VK, Coval SM. Beneficial effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nutr Clin Care. 2001; 3: 153-62.

Kris-Etherton P, Pearson TA, Wan Y, et al. High-monounsaturated fatty acids lower both plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 70: 1009-1015.





Racette SB, Lin X, Lefevre M, et al. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study . Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91: 32-8.

Moghadasian M, Frohlich JJ. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: Clinical and experimental evidence. Am J Med 1999; 107: 588-594.






Aburto NJ, Hanson S, Gutierrez H, et al. Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ. 2013; 346: f1378.


Lanham-New S, Lambert H, Frassetto L. Potassium. Adv Nutr. 2012; 3: 820-1.

Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Dietary potassium and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Stroke. 2011; 42(10): 2746-50.





Shea MK, Holden RM. Vitamin K status and vascular calcification: evidence from observational and clinical studies. Adv Nutr. 2012; 3: 158-65.

Dismore KL, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Peterson JW, Booth SL. Vitamin K content of nuts and fruits in the US diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103(12): 1650-52.